Artificial Intelligence (AI) uses machines (computers) to emulate human problem-solving and decision-making. Artificial intelligence is intelligence demonstrated by machines, as opposed to naturally occurring intelligence displayed by humans.
John McCarthy, Professor Emeritus of Computer Science at Stanford University, offers this more nuanced definition for AI: “It is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs. It is related to the similar task of using computers to understand human intelligence, but AI does not have to confine itself to methods that are biologically observable.”
At its simplest form, Artificial Intelligence is a field, which combines computer science and robust datasets to enable problem-solving.
There are four distinct types of AI:
• Reactive AI: These systems are purely reactive. They respond to direct input, whether a chess move by an opponent or spam filtering in your email. They cannot form memories or use past experiences to inform decisions.
• Limited Memory AI: These systems possess a limited ability to investigate the past to inform current decisions, but they do not save and compile past experiences to become part of them.
• Theory of Mind AI: These systems do not exist yet, but they are on the horizon. These systems form representations about the world and other systems in it.
• Self-Aware AI: These systems are even more advanced and do not yet exist. Instead of simply forming representations of the world around them, these systems can create representations about themselves.
Our daily lives are full of examples of Reactive AI. Deep Blue, the IBM supercomputer that famously defeated Garry Kasparov, is an example. The Netflix recommendation engine that serves up timely and relevant content to keep users binging is another. These systems always respond to identical situations in the same way. They are not able to conceive the past or future.
Limited Memory AI is at work in all of the autonomous vehicles we see on the road every day. These systems can take historical and observational data to make predictions and perform complex tasks.
Theory of Mind AI systems is not too far off. It is only a matter of time before we can hold meaningful conversations with emotionally intelligent systems that look and sound like human beings.
We have not developed the hardware or algorithms to make Self-Aware AI systems, but they will have their own desires, needs, and emotions.
From speech recognition to computer vision, there is a wide range of real-world applications for AI systems. At VoiceSignals, we combine world-class psychological science with advanced Artificial Intelligence. The first People Intelligence Platform offers real-time insight into individuals’ emotions and personality traits to predict future behaviors.
See the science behind the scenes and download our validation study here.
 John McCarthy, What is Artificial Intelligence? https://borghese.di.unimi.it/Teaching/AdvancedIntelligentSystems/Old/IntelligentSystems_2008_2009/Old/IntelligentSystems_2005_2006/Documents/Symbolic/04_McCarthy_whatisai.pdf
 IBM Cloud Education, Artificial Intelligence (AI) https://www.ibm.com/cloud/learn/what-is-artificial-intelligence